These three forces that have contributed to shaping the rectangular formatting for our books that we know and use today, print or electronic.
The Library of Alexandria was maybe the greatest repository of knowledge in the ancient world. Located in Alexandria, Egypt, right on the Mediterranean, the library was burned by Julius Caesar in 48AD, and centuries worth of written wisdom were lost.
If you’re as upset about this fact as the rest of the internet, it’s probably too soon, but I come bearing good news: though we’ll probably never know exactly the magnitude of what we lost, there is now another library on the site of the burned one.
Image via Ancient World Magazine
The Maktabat El-Iskandarīyah (or… Library of Alexandria, in English) opened in 2002, and can hold up to eight million books, though it holds only about 100,000 now. This is equivalent to what scholars believe the Great Library, held in its day. Experts estimate the library won’t be full for another eighty years. The new Library of Alexandria is also home to seven specialized libraries, four museums, two extensive permanent collections, and access to the Internet Archive, a massive digital library.
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The ancient library was important not only in itself, as one of the most prestigious libraries of its age, but in that it was a model for other libraries which proliferated throughout the area in major cities and even in smaller ones. The new library, though modern, is both a memorial to the one that burned, and proof that knowledge is still valued as it was then. The library houses books in Classical Arabic, English, and French.
Featured image via Travel and Leisure
Hello internet denizens. Do you Like Homer? Sappho? Memes? Allow me to introduce you to the swirling vortex that is the classics fandom. It may have been two-hundred years since they got any new material, but the community is still going strong. Let’s take a look.
Here, a meme about the greatest intellectual tragedy of all time.
Image via TheAmazingPeggyCarter
But it’s not all about history. Here are some about the Iliad.
Image via Classically Classical Classics Memes
Alright, so it wasn’t a gift, it was a sacrifice to the gods that the Trojans were foolish enough to steal, but I’m not mad about it. Trojan horse memes may be antique, but they’re classic (heh).
How about another Iliad meme, this time thanks to Parks and Rec.
Image via SymposiumAndChill
No opinions on the Iliad? No worries! There are general interest memes as well, about things like the Greek gods.
Image via Classically Classical Classics Memes
Zeus is a thot. That’s the real takeaway. There’s actually a lot of comedic Zeus hate, which is honestly incredibly valid. Try this one on for size.
Image via PaleoMonarchy
Of course, it didn’t work out very well for Prometheus, but at least he got a burn in before being chained… to a rock… and having his liver… repeatedly eaten. Yikes. He’s definitely going to need more than aloe.
Just one more history meme before I go.
Image via JustHistoryStuff
March fifteenth may have come and gone somehow, but jokes about stabbing Caesar don’t have to be contained to one date, and next year, when you see this last meme, you’ll know it’s come.
Image via Reddit
Featured image via CLASSICALLY CLASSICAL CLASSICS MEMES
Imagine waking up in Cairo on January 25th of 2011. Trying to call your loved ones, but to no avail. Trying to turn on your lights, but to no avail. Turning on your television, and witnessing the people of your country violently turning on the government in the historical site Tahrir Square. In light of the low wages, corruption, lack of freedom of speech, and police brutality that plagued the nation, millions of protesters from various social, economic, and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Violent interactions between the police and the protesters resulted in almost 1,000 people killed, and over 6,000 left injured.
Image Via The New Yorker
The role of women in the revolution needs to be discussed more. Prior to the revolution in 2011, women only accounted for 10% of protestors in uprisings. However, in 2011 in Tahrir Square, they accounted for about half of the protestors. Together with men, women risked their lives to defend their fellow Egyptians and defend the square. The reason why there was a huge increase of female presence in the protests is attributed to the improvement of education, especially throughout younger women. Quite an empowering moment not just for Middle Eastern women, but women around the world.
Image Via Al Jazeera
Women and the Egyptian Revolution: Engagement and Activism during the 2011 Arab Uprisings chronicles the 2011 revolution in Egypt through the viewpoint of women, with various first hand interviews with female activists. It looks at the history of gender throughout Egypt and discusses the possible outcomes for the future possibilities of women’s rights within the country. The author, Nermin Allam, blends social movement theories and the lived experiences of women during the uprisings, leading up to the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak. Female engagement in political confrontation throughout the Middle East is a highly under researched topic, and this book is a crucial contribution to the field.
Featured Image Via Eyes Opened
Today marks the 155th anniversary of Juneteenth, a holiday that commemorates the end of slavery in the United States. The proclamation was declared by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1st, 1863, but the news did not reach Texas until two-and-a-half years later. Since then, generations have celebrated the day as Juneteenth and forty-five states recognize it as a state holiday.
As we remember this historic day in United States history, below are ten powerful quotes by central figures about the ugly history of slavery and this holiday’s meaning.
Image via CNN
1. “I prayed for freedom for twenty years, but received no answer until I prayed with my legs.” – Frederick Douglas.
2. “I had reasoned this out in my mind; there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty, or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other; for no man should take me alive; I should fight for my liberty as long as my strength lasted, and when the time came for me to go, the Lord would let them take me.” – Harriet Tubman.
3. “We’re in denial of the African holocaust. Most times, people don’t want to talk about it. One is often restless or termed a racist just for having compassion for the African experience, for speaking truth to the trans-Atlantic and Arab slave trades, for speaking truth to the significant omission of our history. We don’t want to sit down and listen to these things, or to discuss them. But we have to.” – Ilyasah Shabazz, daughter of Malcolm X.
Image via CNN
4. “If the cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. Because the goal of America is freedom, abused and scorned tho’ we may be, our destiny is tied up with America’s destiny.” – Martin Luther King Jr.
5. “Anytime anyone is enslaved, or in any way deprived of his liberty, if that person is a human being, as far as I am concerned he is justified to resort to whatever methods necessary to bring about his liberty again.” – Malcolm X.
6. “My people have a country of their own to go to if they choose… Africa… but, this America belongs to them just as much as it does to any of the white race… in some ways even more so, because they gave the sweat of their brow and their blood in slavery so that many parts of America could become prosperous and recognized in the world.” – Josephine Baker, legendary entertainer and activist.
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7. “Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally.” – Abraham Lincoln.
8. “Where annual elections end where slavery begins.” – John Quincy Adams.
9. “…the 19th of June wasn’t the exact day the Negro was freed. But that’s the day they told them that they was free… And my daddy told me that they whooped and hollered and bored holes in trees with augers and stopped it up with [gun] powder and light and that would be their blast for the celebration.” – Haye Turner, former slave.
10. “Every year we must remind successive generations that this event triggered a series of events that one by one defines the challenges and responsibilities of successive generations. That’s why we need this holiday.” – Texas Rep. Al Edwards.
Featured Image Via CNN