Stanley Kubrick is one of the classic filmmakers. His films have stretched into the public imagination, making him a household name like Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, and Quentin Tarantino. His works have all been genre defining, ushering in new film techniques and inspiring dozens of imitators. His films have included A Clockwork Orange, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Dr. Strangelove, and Eyes Wide Shut. Now, twenty years after his death, three new screenplays have been found for unused script ideas Kubrick created during his lifetime but never made into films. These scripts were discovered in London and containing intriguing ideas that speak to much of Kubrick’s personal life as well as his imagination.
Image via The Dazed
According to The Dazed,these scripts were written between 1954 and 1956. During this period, Kubrick was having problems with his then wife, Ruth Sobotka. The screenplays were entitled Married Men, The Perfect Marriage, and Jealously. The first script is the most extensive of the lot, featuring 35 pages of typed script with extra additions of handwritten notes. The second is just seven pages, while the third features a middle ground between the two: 13 pages. These scripts showcase that Kubrick, known for being far more reclusive than most other filmmakers, was working on much unknown work during his period. This is especially important as the 1950s were his least understood part of his career and showcased he was doing much more in private than anyone knew, while also revealing his deeply troubled wedded life.
The scripts enforce this, full of depressing quotes and dark lines about marriage. One quote showcases Kubrick’s attitude at the time quite well. He wrote:
“Marriage is like a long meal with dessert served at the beginning. Can you imagine the horrors of living with a woman who fastens herself on you like a rubber suction cup whose entire life revolves around you morning, noon and night?”
Yikes. Well that’s certainly a telling quote.
The script’s stories themselves are described as very mediocre and don’t showcase Kubrick’s talent. Kubrick was not a writer but his genius lay in his visual style and approach to filmmaking to make high art out of simple, often trashy, ideas. So, we don’t know what form these films would have taken onscreen. Still, finding these scripts is an incredible discovery for both writing and Kubrick fans, not to mention fans of film in general. Who knows what other projects Kubrick had under his wing that never saw the light of day.
What do you think of this cool discovery? Tell us in the comments!
A Clockwork Orange is a timeless classic, loved by many and read by many more, often as part of a course reading list. Anthony Burgess’ dystopian novel about teens committing acts of ultra-violence is better known today by the Stanley Kubrick film of the same name. It’s an unforgettable story, and one that allegedly was supposed to have a follow-up.
According to The Guardian, an unpublished manuscript titled The Clockwork Condition was found in the late Burgess’ home. Rather than serve as a proper narrative sequel to the story from the first novel, this book was supposed to explore the moral panic that ensued when the film was released.
With its violent subject matter, A Clockwork Orange gained a lot of criticism when some believed that it served as the inspiration for copycat crimes. This new book would examine the extreme reactions to the source material while offering larger critiques on humanity as a whole. The project was very ambitious at the time, which is most likely why Burgess never completed it.
Still, Andrew Biswell, director of the Burgess Foundation, said that a publishable version of the unfinished manuscript could come in the future. So if you’re hungry for a lost work from one of the greats, he assures, “there is enough material present in the drafts and outlines to give a reasonably clear impression of what this lost Burgess book might have been.”
Some (especially me!) would say that the ending is the most important part of the story. It is the last chance for the author to effect the audience, to really say something. It is the moment when everything comes together, the moment that everything builds to. Here, the intentions behind the story become clear.
Which is why it’s really frustrating, blood-boiling even, when the movie changes the ending! Here are six movie adaptations that completely changed the book’s ending. Some of them make for a better story, but not all of them. Especially not that film.
Oh yeah, spoilers. But these books and films are like —*mental math sounds* —old.
6. The Witches
According to Syfy, the 1990 film The Witches is the most iconic Roald Dahl adaptation. It’s both terrifying and awe-inspiring. The witches have, as described in the book, bald heads, eyes that change color, and toeless feet. Heck, just look at the Grant High Witch (Anjelica Huston) in all her glory:
Just kidding. That’s just her unmasking. This is what she REALLY looks like:
Most 90s kids will agree that image sent shivers up their spine and is burnt into their consciousness. The story follows a little boy named Luke Eveshim who unwittingly stumbles upon the annual meeting of witches, taking place in the hotel where he is staying with his grandmother. The witches are planning to turn children into mice, and Luke is one of their first victims.
The film follows the 1983 child’s book of the same name rather closely. That is, until the ending. In the book, Luke remains a mouse, however this is not portrayed as a sad ending, as his lifespan as a mouse will be about equal to the amount of time his grandmother has left alive, and thus they will live out the remainder of their lives together.
In the film, HOWEVER, one of the witches doesn’t like how the Grand High Witch is treating her so she bails, and tracks down Luke (who is still a mouse), reversing the spell and turning him back into a little boy.
BBC News reported that Roald Dahl, dismissed this film’s ending as “utterly appalling”. Personally, I think after seeing their interpretation of the Grand High Witch, I’d cut the film some slack for its happy ending.
5. The Shining
We’ve all absorbed the story through the cultural zeitgeist—through either reading the Stephen King novel, seeing the Stanley Kubrick film, or just seeing enough stills and hearing enough quotes from the film to consider ourselves fairly familiar with one of the most iconic thrillers of the modern age. So, as you probably know, The Shining follows Jack Torrence (portrayed by Jack Nicholson), a man struggling with both with writer’s block and alcoholism, who brings his family to a remote hotel he can finally complete his play.
Unfortunately, the two creators – King and Kubrick – were fundamentally at odds with each other. According to The Guardian, King received one call from the infamous director which went something like this:
Kubrick: “I think stories of the supernatural are fundamentally optimistic, don’t you? If there are ghosts then that means we survive death.”
King: “What’s that mean?”
(A long pause)
Kubrick: “I don’t believe in hell.”
So the two creators didn’t see eye to eye. What more is that the films diverge far before the ending. According to Steven King, “in the book, there’s an actual arc where you see this guy, Jack Torrance, trying to be good, and little by little he moves over to this place where he’s crazy. And as far as I was concerned, when I saw the movie, Jack was crazy from the first scene.”
Knowing this, it’s hard to explain why these two approaches reach vastly different endings. In the novel, Jack Torrence regains his senses and sacrifices himself – giving his son Danny and wife Wendy time to escape with Dick Hallorann.
In the Kubrick film, Danny runs from a crazy Jack through a hedge maze ( the book features topiary animals that come to life, but no giant hedge maze) and eventually evades Jack. Exhausted, Jack collapses to the ground while the others escape – without Dick Hallorann as he is killed in the film version – and Jack freezes to death.
As Steven King said, “…the book ends in fire, and the movie in ice.”
That sums it up pretty well.
4. Fight Club
Here’s a case in which the author actually preferred the film adaptation to their own book.
Chuck Palahniuk’s novel Fight Club ends with with Jack/Tyler Durdan in a mental hospital. Yeah, that was inevitable.
But the David Fincher film gets revolutionary. Jack holds hands with Marla while Project Mayhem goes off without a hitch, and the city’s buildings crumble to the ground. Brief shot of a penis (see the movie, read the book to get it) before we cut to credits.
Mr. Palahniuk himself said in an interview “…when I sat down…[to]…record a commentary track for the DVD, I was sort of embarrassed of the book, because the movie had streamlined the plot and made it so much more effective and made connections that I had never thought to make”.
What was I talking about? Oh yeah: in 1962 Anthony Burgess published A Clockwork Orange and 1971 saw the release of the Kubrick’s film. While Anthony Burgess made it clear he didn’t want to be remembered by this novel, his fate was fixed when Kubrick had a young Malcolm McDowell stare into a camera lens, his glassy eyes gazing right through the audience.
Both stories follow the character of Alex before and after his imprisonment. While the plot of the novel and the film are largely the same (except for character swaps here and there) the endings differ.
In the film Alex is de-conditioned during his recuperation in a hospital, during which time, he meets with government office and makes a deal with them: Alex will tell everyone the government isn’t at fault and they are friends (even though the government in this dystopian setting are to blame for Alex being literally unable to defend himself). After this deal, Alex looks at the camera and goes, “I was cured alright,” as Beethoven’s 9th blare out. Alex’s fantasies are back in full wind and he faces no more consequences for his actions.
The novel, on the other hand, includes an extra chapter. In Chapter Twenty-One, Alex finds an old friend, Pete, who is now married and settled down. Alex begins imagining that kind of life for himself, signifying his change into adulthood. Consequence of Sound quotes Anthony Burgess as saying, “My young hoodlum comes to the revelation of the need to get something done in life.”
2. First Blood
The iconic 1982 movie is based on David Morrell’s 1972 novel First Blood, in which Rambo dies!
Yes, the iconic character dies. Also, his name is Rambo in the book. Just Rambo. The film takes extensive liberties such as giving Rambo a first name (John).
In the film, Rambo goes after Sheriff Teastle and, as he prepares to kill him, his commanding officer Trautman arrives to stop Rambo. Rambo ceases fighting and surrenders to Trautman in order to be taken into custody.
However, in the novel, Rambo puts a stick of dynamite against his chest when he goes after Sheriff Teastle. But Sheriff Teastle doesn’t fire back and that Rambo is too weak to light the dynamite. Alas, he is then shot in the head. No sequel for Rambo. Trautman has put him out of his misery and Teasle feels a moment of affection for Rambo before he dies.
Both mediums are about Vietnam veterans, but the novel, released during the Vietnam War, depicts a character unable to stop fighting while the film, released seven years after the war officially ended, shows a character who is willing to surrender for the greater good.
1. I Am Legend
This totally isn’t that film that I was talking about in the beginning. Calm down.
So Richard Matheson’s book and the 2007 film starring Will Smith have the same premise: a man walks alone in a post-apocalyptic city filled with plague monsters. In the book, they’re vampires. In the film, they’re zombies. Oh well. I can live with that. So far, so good.
The movie ends with Will Smith’s Dr. Robert Neville in an all-out brawl with the infected zombies, eventually sacrificing himself to save other survivors while they escape with a cure.
The book ends with Robert Neville attacking in an all-out brawl with the infected zombies, eventually realizing that he has become a monster. The world is no longer meant for humans – and the monsters fear him the way he fears them. He understands that their desire to kill him is not something he can condemn and thus resigns from life, leaving the earth to the monsters.
Get a load of this kicker: the filmmakers actually had the book’s original ending in the script. Heck, they even filmed that ending. But it didn’t do well with test audiences, so it was given a Hollywood ending. Even the film’s director, Francis Lawrence, told Screen Rant, “I agree [the book has] the better ending.”